(1878 - 1903)

Vincenzo Pecci (1810-1903), Pope for 25 years. Remembered most especially for his Encyclical Rerum Novarum, on the ‘Condition of Labour’, issued in 1871, not least because it represents the first of what became a ten-yearly succession of encyclicals on matters of social political ethics. He also re-established the Church’s hierarchy in Scotland and in 1896 issued an Encyclical decreeing that the Anglican ministry is invalid.

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